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HUMANISM AND HUMANITARIANISM OF MEDICAL EDUCATION I.S. Ogorodnyk, I.V. Ryzhenko


In history of its appearance, the notion ‘humanism’ is inseparable from education and its problems, as well as it is closely connected with humanities knowledge. Medical education is not only an exception, but to greater extent requires humanism and humanitarianism approaches in solving its problems, as it always works with the most valuable possession that a human being has - with his life and its qualitative state - his health.

Humanism, as humaneness to people and social activity, as sensible human attitude of people to others which doesn’t depend on the level of education, is formed and works in the medical sphere of education. Humanistic world view is formed by a range of subjects (ethics, culture studies, history, deontology). But they have no effect on humanisation of the given education, in spite of the fact that listed above subjects belong to social sciences and humanities cycle. Hence, let us consider problems of humanities in medical higher educational institutions.
Modern growth of technical and computer spheres, applied in medicine, makes the raising interest to humanities component topical. It is displayed in the fact that technologies used in medical sphere become a kind of barrier for a doctor and patient. Undoubtedly, technologies open our opportunities and raise objectivity in diagnosing and treating on the one hand, but on the other, a doctor turns into a robot that in searching of the effective methods of somatic treating, underestimates psychic and psychological effect on somatics and state of a patient.
Doctor’s principle «Do no harm» should be carried out appropriately in all spheres of medical activity, but the most ‘dangerous’profession from that point of view is psychotherapy which is a branch of psychiatry. This complexity of psychotherapy consists in its closest relations to culture, ideology and world view comparing with other medical branches and, hence, it is the closest one to humanities knowledge. Such patients’ states as anxiety, depression, etc. demand from doctors not only medical treatment, but sympathy and empathy. And a patient is required to work on himself more thoroughly from psychological point of view with the purpose of working out new value guidelines and adequate estimation of his new state. As doctor’s responsibility is to relieve patient’s state, to aid with what a patient came to him, to treat him, doctors, regardless the field they specialize in, should have knowledge skills and methods of helping a patient to overcome such state. Therefore, speech, intonation, words, said by a doctor play an important role in treatment: whether a patient would trust his doctor or not, whether methods and ways of treatment would sound convincing or not.
Every historical epoch had its own psychotherapy. From our point of view, the present time sets the problem of synthesis of medical and humanities knowledge that gives opportunity to medical students to obtain skills of humanities psychotherapy and to apply them while practicing. Humanities accent in education will raise the effectiveness of treating as the subject of humanities sciences is ‘expressive and talking being’ (M.M. Bakhtin). Along with medical and surgical treatment, a patient needs psycho-therapeutic aid which is represented not so much by technologies but by philosophy as a treatment by word and speaking. Such aid is necessary not only in treating neuroses, deviations and drug addiction, but for all patients. In the past, people addressed to priests with such problems; today he can and addresses to doctors. Hence, any doctor has to be a kind of a medical priest, to carry out functions of humanities psychotherapist. Such problems can arise in practice of any doctor: physicians can diagnose an incurable disease, surgeons have to amputate, orthopedists work with disabled patients, gynecologists diagnose infertility and recommend artificial fertilization or, on the contrary, perform abortions, neonatologists warn parents about any possible pathology of their child, etc. Telling diagnosis to a patient, doctor acts as a judge when sometimes a diagnosis sounds like a death sentence after which patient’s life loses any sense and a patient does not see his future. That is why a doctor has to be a humanities psychotherapeutist that can choose appropriate words while talking with his patient.
The increasing growth of innovation technologies both in educational and medical process leads to depersonification and dehumanisation of relationship that sets new problems for humanities such as starch of the new forms of interpersonal communication. Medical education as all natural sciences works with the facts that require rational analysis, and humanities education affects heart, senses and feelings that make them individual, close to a human being. Hence, treatment in combination with spiritual sphere, with a therapy by words has and will have best result and per cent of recovery.
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Источник: Авторский коллектив. ФИЛОСОФИЯ В БЕЛАРУСИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ МИРОВОЙ ИНТЕЛЛЕКТУАЛЬНОЙ КУЛЬТУРЫ Минск «Право и экономика» 2011. 2011

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