God, man, and world are the three fundamental bases of human intellect. Throughout the history and in all the societies, these concepts have continuously been investigated seriously and have been the source of thought perishing and thought inducing inquiries.

Most of man's intellectual endeavor has been toward these three concepts and he has strived to find appropriate answers to his questions.

Among these notions, knowing the verity of man and answering mysteries and unfolding secrets pertaining to him are of utmost importance. In divine religions, after «God», «Man» is considered the most pivotal subject.

There are numerous ambiguities and questions concerning man, his origin and his destiny. These are among the most intriguing issues and complex mysteries in the universe. There are also numerous answers, ideas and opinions about the verity of man so that collecting all of them is a daunting and sometimes impossible task.

Thomas Hobbes refers to man as 'intrinsic evil' while John Jacques Rousseau knows man as 'intrinsic good'. Some, like Carl Young, consider man of 'nature and disposition', while others, like John Paul Sartre, believe in the lack of 'nature and disposition' for him. In Materialism School man is a uni-dimensional entity while in Divine Schools he is multi-dimensional. Nietzsche refers to man as an individualistic phenomenon while Erich Fromm considers him a social creature. In Existentialism, man can develop himself as he wishes while Emile Durkheim believes man is shaped by the society and Materialism holds that this is the history which shapes man. Freud has a different view from all of these and believes this is the sexual drive that leads the development of man.

In this paper it is tried to mention some different ideas about the verity of man, and finally present Islam's point of view concerning the issue.

  1. Man-centeredness in Humanism School

Liberal-democratic ideation believes in an undisputable and unique position for man in the whole universe and considers him the center and the pivot of universe and holds that man has no

paramount in the world.

Literally Humanism means the authenticity of human, man-centeredness and the fulfillment of man's emotional and spiritual needs without following a God or religion (Longman Advanced Dictionary, 2010). This notion of Humanism has gained various definitions throughout the history, as:

  1. Ancient literature (poem, meanings, expression, ethics, and policy).
  2. Paying attention to human thoughts, desires, and centeredness.
  3. Believing in intrinsic human abilities.
  4. Believing in wisdom, intellectuality, scientific methods, and doubt as appropriate instruments in finding the truth and the structure of human society [4, p. 19].
  5. Human dominancy and human-centeredness.

The most prevalent definition for Humanism is the one which means human-centeredness and is opposite to God-centeredness. This definition holds man as the unique verity of the universe and puts man in God's position.

The most significant components and principles of Humanism are:

  1. Human-centeredness,
  2. Materialism,
  3. Rationalism and Positivism,
  4. Freedom,
  5. Facility and Negligence,
  6. Secularism,

A Criticism of Humanism

  1. There is a huge gap between Humanism as a movement of thought and what has really happened to human societies in the history of Humanism sovereignty.
  2. There is an exaggeration in giving value to intellect and paralleling it with God.
  3. The absolute Humanistic freedom leaves no place for duty, responsibility, and observing public expediency.
  4. Every man is considered idiosyncratic (it is individual-centered not society-centered.)
  5. Man is not the product of his environment but the creator of it.
  6. In modern followers of Humanism's view point, man is an instrument to achieve more materialistic benefits.
  1. Man in Existentialism School

The founder of Existentialism school of thought was the Danish philosopher, S0ren Kierkegaard.

He believed that the mould and frame of all phenomena, except man, exist in God's knowledge or do exist because of nature's compulsory rules; therefore, these phenomena can be defined and described since they have entity.

Man is the only phenomenon in the universe whose existence precedes his entity. Man comes to this world with no nature and predisposition, i.e, he first finds existence and then decides optionally to create his own entity, nature and structure with authority. So, there is no plan or idea about the existence of man prior to the manifestation of man's personality or entity [5, p. 71].

The following principles are some of this school's particulars:

  1. Man's perfection is related to his authority and freedom.
  2. Admitting the existence of nature and disposition for man deprives him of freedom.
  3. Man is the only creature in the universe that is not controlled by any cause and effect necessity.
  4. Man is a «self-creator» or «self-elevator» creature.
  5. Some of the philosophers in this school, like Kierkegaard, believe in the existence of God; however, some others, like John Paul Sartre, do not believe in God since they see a contradiction between the existence of God and freedom.
  6. Man is a creature who has some special characteristic like, self-knowing, returning to the origin and source, authority, selection, and melancholy.

A Criticism of Existentialism

  1. One of the positive aspects of this theory is the attention it gives to man's existence and the necessity of man's development, elevation, responsibility, and perfection.
  2. Lack of entity leads to an imperfection in the goal-oriented quality of creation.
  3. Freedom is not deemed as absolute and limitless free-will.
  4. Freedom is perfection but a perfection which is a means for the ultimate              and main              perfec

tion, so freedom is not an end.

  1. The influence of the environment, nutrition, and heredity cannot be ignored.
  1. Verity of Man in Islamic Teachings

Islam grants a very special position for man. In Islam, man is known to be related to the world and the origin and destination of man is very clear and sacred. Various features are attributed to man in Islam, including:

  1. Man has a divine soul and he is intrinsically chaste and god-seeker.
  2. Man has a really high and valuable position in the world and he is called «Khalifatollah» (God's Caliph / ruler). Man's position is so high that even angels bow to and respect him.
  3. In Islam's view point, man can conquer the earth, heavens, and all their creatures.
  4. Man has freedom in selecting his course of life.
  5. Man has the quality of responsibility and can determine his              fate.              He              has no              compulsion

and necessity for selecting his fate.

  1. The creator of man is God and in this creation God gives man nobility by giving him a part of the divine spirit.
  2. The perfection of man is in achieving actuality, truth, and approaching the magnificent


  1. Various elements as knowledge, good deeds, intellect, and faith are crucial in the elevation of man and some other factors like ignorance, negligence, unfaithfulness, and sins are important barriers in the way of man's development.


A comprehensive study of diverse views, a number of which we referred to, it becomes obvious that:

  1. A man who has moved away from God and has move toward superficial deities and beloveds cannot attain perfection.
  2. A materialist and irreligious man sometimes digresses all humanistic dignities and nobilities.
  3. In the view point of Humanism and Liberalism followers, man is an instrument to achieve more materialistic benefits.
  4. Even though the modern western man has had great industrial and technological achievements, he has become afflicted with emotional and psychological crises since he has moved away from spiritualties and ethics.
  5. In western schools of thoughts, intellect and wisdom have been separated from divine religions while in Islamic ideas, they are not completely ignored nor are they perfectly accepted.


  1. The Holy Qor'an.
  2. Mesbah Yazdi, Mohammad Taqi. Philosophy Education, Islamic Advertisement Organization Publications.
  3. Motahari Morteza, Philosophy of Ethics, Sadra Publications.
  4. Ghanbari. A criticism of Humanism and Liberalism. Islamic Investigation Center Research.
  5. Sartre, John Paul. Principles of Existentialism Philosophy.

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Источник: Авторский коллектив. ФИЛОСОФИЯ В БЕЛАРУСИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ МИРОВОЙ ИНТЕЛЛЕКТУАЛЬНОЙ КУЛЬТУРЫ Минск «Право и экономика» 2011. 2011

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