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UNIVERSALIST AND TRANSDISCIPLINARY EDUCATION. A SINERGY FOR ADEQUATE PEDAGOGY Dessart Francis

The principles of integration, synthesis and co-operative endeavor are making rapid strides as an effective working force in today’s world. In all branches of pure science especially at advanced levels, there is a blending and merging process of ideas and concepts.

It is almost as though there was discerned a fundamental unity of spirit and aim as we approach the heart of things and find a true relationship of one branch of effort.

Attempts to achieve synthesis and cooperation in education are not new. But it has never tried on an international basis or at a more favorable time to success or when it can be more readily understood. A revolution of thought is taking place today. The once rigid moulds of scientific and philosophical investigation have been broken and new avenues of inspiration and investigation are being followed which promise to reveal many new secrets of nature, of the universe and cosmos. This most surely will lead man's thinking closer to the realities of life and its central wellspring. In this context, Universalist Pedagogy introduces a new conception which concerns education in general and also foreign languages learning and teaching.

Einstein’s theory of relativity has moved us into another world - a world of ideas and expansion entirely transformed from former physical «reality». The logic of the new physics may have been termed sheer insanity seventy or eighty years ago, yet it shows the trend of the investigation into a kind of transcendental world and logic, unifying and synthesizing thought processes which both explain and resolve many of life’s mysteries.

The concept of relativity has given us a new key - a new emphasis on the educational processes. It uses all the available faculties of man instead of the more cramming of technical or artistic information. It harnesses a man’s imagination and merges the particular with the universal to create concepts, which are new to a mundane world.

It is more than integration and synthesis - there is also a bridging of gaps which promise to simplify the whole of ideas to some common denominator or principle.

Universalist Pedagogy finds today's prosaic education inadequate. The world's educators must be aroused to the greater advantages of this trend and to use it as a tool in education.

The goal of an international University is to recognize this and to come forward as a starting point to advance and accelerate the ideas of integration and cooperation among the universities of the world. It has a plan and a purpose which simply stated to create of international body of associated universities which can agree together for common purposes and goals under a broad set of rules which can be described as allowing freedom and diversity yet in a concerted unity of purposes. Each of the colleges and universities would be autonomous in operation, yet agreeing to cooperative un-

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der universal principles and direction previously agreed to and administered by a governing body elected by the constituency.

It is obvious to those who know the state of world education that today’s public learning institutions are inadequate and slow to change.

The larger the university, the more ponderous and unwieldy it is, taking years to install progressive ideas or new techniques. With a new university, universal in character without state or denominational influences, it can set a truthful and universal pace to education which can accelerate the processes immeasurably. It will be able to change and decide quickly and dynamically. It will give to those who are able to learn and be inclusive and not exclusive, giving instruction now sadly lacking in many cur- riculums, such as morality end the scientific basis of altruism.

This requires a shift of emphasis from merely intellectual pursuits to those designed to awaken and strengthen the moral fiber and the principles of unity. Mostly what we need to build is character with a capital c, not just brains and brawn.

We must emphasize the art of human relations and explorations into the higher science to discover greater potentials and powers.

The use of the intuitive processes promises to unlock much of man’s greater powers. The challenge is now to educate for excellence, for we can no longer afford the luxury of political errors, social injustices, semantic confusions or spiritual blindness.

The new generation cannot merely educate to the level of adequacy, but most of all, education techniques of death must be stopped and pursuits and education to promote life must be encouraged. We must stop killing and begin to nurture all life as sacred. We must turn an economy of war end slaughter of innocents to an economy of peace and life. The prime purposes of education would be shifted to serve as a basis for the good, the true and the beautiful and secondly to serve to acquire professional competence and a life of service.

Intelligence alone is not the hallmark of an advanced soul. It must be combined with a wider awareness of natural life and law and seek the higher aspects of living. A relaxed freedom of mind and spirit is needed to pursue research and inquiry. Explorations into the deeper levels of the consciousness promise a pursuit, which show’s us the true state of evidence and the lasting values of life.

The formation of the programs has been planned and accomplished in answer to a deep need in world education. Events are moving fast in today's world - faster than our ability to keep up with them or to even train people to even understand them, let alone manage them. Our technology has reached cosmic stature, but our education is still bound by traditions, which keep them earthbound.

As a result of inadequate planning and thinking about the needs of education, we face a grave situation in how to best apply the new found sciences - whether to advance mankind or kill him off.

In the past, man's thinking has been largely dominated by the expedient and the useful economic rivalry, power politics, mass ignorance, poverty, disease, selfishness

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and the fight for dally bread.

This can no longer continue in a world community which modern communications has shrunk to the size of a large living room.

Two significant and decisive events have altered the present course of world history - nuclear physics and the speed of communications. These manifestations now make mandatory the lifting of man's consciousness to higher levels that match physics and the speed of consciousness to higher levels that match his material achievements.

The study of the mind and the soul is now a universal science which looms largely as a necessity for adequate education - not as we have known of it in the past - but now with a new urgency, a new vision, new depth and new techniques. Such pursuits promise to more rapidly expand the mental and moral horizons, enabling a realization of unity which shall advance and uplift civilization.

Language teaching as a practical rather than a theoretical activity includes some important activities such as monitoring, giving feedback and intervening to maximize effectiveness.

Reviews of research consistently report effectiveness. For instance PA. Cohen, J.A. Kulik, C-L. C. Kulik in «Educational Outcomes of Tutoring: a Meta-Analysis of findings» [2], A.M. Sharpley and C.T. Sharpley in an article published in Collected Original Resourses in Education (CORR) [3]. And recently K.J. Topping and S. Ehly in «Peer-Assisted Learning») [4] observe that monitoring can indeed be very effective, but that does not mean it is automatically effective everywhere.

However, even in the published literature (with its bias towards positive and statistically significant findings) a minority of «monitor, give feedback and intervene to maximize effectiveness» projects do not show effectiveness.

To maximize effectiveness, it is necessary to start by using a structured method that has been reported as effective in the research literature. One has to be very careful and thorough in planning monitoring and giving feedback, training the teachers and the students, and providing appropriate materials.

In «Peer-Assisted Learning: a Practical Guide for Teachers» [5] K.J. Topping shows that it is important to monitor the implementation of the monitoring and give feedback and intervene where needed.

We can forge an education which can influence the world to correct many basic errors. It can accomplish «in unison» what each university finds impossible to do se p- arately. The old axiom «in union there is strength» still holds true today.

State schools are dominated politically and are so large and unwieldy they are slow to change.

If the teachers organize they can work better and change faster than any public or denominational university that has private and vested interests to satisfy.

This opinion is totally in agreement with the Dakar Declaration (1992) issued by the Rectors of African Universities. One needs schools that will promote individual creativity - that will synthesize the complexity of parts into a simplicity of «whol e- ness» - school that will inspire the student to use the laws of the universe and teach that man is greater then his environment and can overcome his difficulties. The excit-

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ing prospect of broad International cooperation among learning centers is something to set an educator's heart to pounding. It has such large implications as to set off the imagination.

Education in depth and excellence can revive a spontaneous enthusiasm in both student end teacher and give to a groping world the means to go forward in confidence and assurance of a future for the race.

There must be a new vision in education and a wider dissemination of knowledge. Extension courses can fill a vital gap for the young who thirst for knowledge which has been denied them. Surely we can no longer withhold the light from them.

There is a need for a new approach to language teaching, which will shift the focus of attention from the grammatical to the communicative properties of language, in order to show the student how the language system is used to express scientific facts and concepts.

Language teaching is taking a new character AS a result of the need for many advanced students to use the language as a tool in the study of scientific and technical subjects.

In the light of this conception it is important to emphasize some practical problems.

Here are some of these practical applications:

-Goals of monitoring. It is useful to detect and solve any problems before they become

large; to find opportunities to give plentiful praise and show enthusiasm to keep motivation high; to ensure the monitoring technique does not show signs of «drift»; to check that pairs are maintaining positive social relationships; to be sure that materials used are from an appropriate level of difficulty; and generally to review the complexity and richness of the learning taking place. -

Self-help guide. The teacher has to be a discreet presence. He / she has to make a simple self-help guide of common problems, with suggestions about how these might be solved. He / she will keep adding to this. -

Self-referral. It is usual for many pairs to encounter some temporary difficulty, so this is not the fault of either helper or helped. They could seek help from other pairs before approaching a teacher. -

Self-recording. The pair should record their progress, and a monitoring teacher can then check these records or diaries from time to time. -

Discussion. The teacher has to talk with the students about how things are going, perhaps at «planning») or «de-briefing» meetings. This might he done individually or in groups, with teacher and students together or separate. -

Direct observation. It is possible to use video or audio recording for monitoring, and this can he useful for feedback to individual pairs or the group as a whole, as well as being valuable as a training aid for subsequent projects. A checklist of the elements of the monitoring technique will be helpful to structure direct observations consistently. The monitoring can also be done using this checklist.

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- Further training. If several pairs are having problems, it is probably worth holding another «refresher» training session.

The structure has and will have many advantages, not the least of which is crossing of present national boundaries of thought and activity. This broadening of influence ideas by a fruitful cooperation shall find its best environment by adherence to a nonsectarian, nonpolitical national outlook [6].

It is this realization that has prompted the planners of the international programs to organize a far-reaching world organization for the task of combining the world's private schools and college into a synthesis or confederation for global education. Their aim is toward one integrative, dynamic purpose - the education of all people to the level of adequacy of peaceful coexistence and to the processes of a human awakening to higher spiritual realities. This movement exists because it believes man is superior to his thought and environment. The perfection of character, the illumination of the mind and the nobility of the spirit are the real tasks and challenges of our time.

What we must now realize is a new concept in education which puts the higher pursuits of wisdom into domain of the practical and the necessary. We must encourage and advance ideals of cooperation, harmony, peace, altruism, integration and put to the forefront of the classrooms an emphasis on the cultural aspects which promotes the ideals of life.

References 1.

Dessart, Francis. Universalist Pedagogy to Build the Future of Humankind / F. Dessart. - Kobe, Japan, 1997. 2.

Cohen, P.A. Educational Outcomes of Tutoring: a Meta-Analysis of Findings / P.A. Cohen, C.-I. C. Kulik // American Educational Outcomes Research Journal (Washington). - 1982. - Vol. 19, no 2.

- P. 237-246. 3.

Sharpley, A.M. Peer Tutoring: a Review of the Literature / A.M. Sharpley, C.F. Sharpley // Collected Original Resources in Education (CORE). - Abington, UK, 1991. - Vol 8, no. 3, 4.

Topping, K.J. Peer-Assisted Learning / KJ. Topping, S. Ehly. - London, 1998. 5.

Topping, K.J. Peer Assisted Learning: a Practical Guide for Teachers / KJ. Topping. - Cambridge, MA Brookine Books, 2000. 6.

Dessart, Fransis. One Earth, One Life - Elements of Eco-Irenology / F. Dessart; 2nd edition. - Arbedo, Switzerland, 1995. 7.

Дессар, Ф. Универсум образования: формирование будущего человечества / Ф. Дессар; перевод с англ. и научная редакция И.Я. Левяша. - Мн.: БГПУ, 2003.

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Источник: Байдаров Е.У.. Информационно-образовательные и воспитательные стратегии в современном обществе: национальный и глобальный контекст. Материалы международной научной конференции, г. Минск, 12-13 ноября 2009 г. - Минск: Право и экономика. - 762 с.. 2010

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